Providing resources and ideas for therapies and medical developments for Parkinson's disease:


Parkinson's Disease Research Lab Supplies, Resources and Links:

The following are links to laboratory resources to help those researching Parkinson's disease.

Alpha-Synuclein Models:

Initiating Parkinson's alpha synuclein aggregation of pre-formed fibrils in animal models or just testing in-vitro, will require one of these products.

  • StressMarq Biosciences: Alpha Synuclein Pre-formed Fibrils and Monomers
    StressMarq manufactures active proteins and antibodies for PD research. This includes active alpha synuclein pre-formed fibrils (PFFs) that can induce endogenous alpha synuclein phosphorylation and Lewy body formation in neuronal cell culture or for in vitro oligomerization studies. These fibrils seed the formation of new fibrils from active alpha synuclein monomers. Stabilized oligomers are also available, and can induce toxicity in cell models. Also available: A53T mutation Alpha-Synuclein monomers and PFFs (A53T refers to an alpha-synuclein genetic variation in which the 53rd amino acid is changed from Alanine to Threonine). Support products for Alpha-Synuclein protocols.
  • rPeptide: Alpha Synuclein Preformed Fibrils
    These preformed fibrils of α-synuclein may be used as a model for the pathogenic form of α-synuclein in numerous neuropathies. Sourced from E. coli, α-synuclein fibrils were prepared and confirmed by thioflavin assay and electron microscopy.
Laboratory equipment

Mouse Models:

Mice used in research are typically genetically modified to express a mutation being studied or to possess a portion of a human DNA sequence in order to react with a human response. After all, the purpose of genetic modification is to develop therapies for humans and not mice. Animals which possess the native and foreign DNA sequences are termed "transgenic".

National Institutes of Health Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals (pdf)
Laboratory mouse

Inducing Parkinson's Pathology in Mouse Models:

Once a mouse model has been chosen, Parkinson's can be induced with the neurotoxin MPTP or by the injection of human alpha-synuclein pre-formed fibrils (PFF) to seed aggregation of rat alpha-synuclein proteins. Once seeded, propagation of protein aggregates spread along axons.

Laboratory mouse injection

Software Models and Resources:

Gone are the days of counting cells in an image. We have software to do that mundane work. Tinker toy chemical models have been replaced by 3D computer models. Even analytics are automated with purpose built data analysis tools.

Alpha-synuclein protein 6PEO
Protein Database: Cryo-EM structure of alpha-synuclein H50Q Narrow Fibril

Measurment Equipment:

Data gethering equipment.

Lab measurement equipment

Lab Equipment and Chemicals:

General suppliers of biological research equipment.

  • Bio-Rad - digital biology, genomics, diagnostics, cell biology, lab equipment and supplies
  • Millipore SiGMa - lab supplies, EIA kits, substrates, ...
  • Vector Laboratories - reagents, immunofluorescence, staining, detection, etc
  • Phoenix Pharmaceuticals Inc - peptides, assay kits, EIA kits, etc. Exendin-4 (Heloderma suspectum) EIA Ki (measurement).
  • Qiagen - RNA isolation kits, DNA methylation analysis, RNA/DNA sequencing, etc
  • Abcam - Assay kits, reagents and antibodies.
    LDH Assay Kit - Cell death/Cytotoxicity - detection of LDH released from damaged cells used to assess the level of plasma membrane damage in a cell population
  • Tocris - reagents
  • Takara - reagents for cloning, DNA ligation kits
Lab equipment - Creative Commons


Positive staining and fluorescent tagging are used to visualize and identify the entity of interest (cell type, organelles, etc). Stains can have chemical affinity, a chemical reaction, immunization marker, bind to a protein, etc Negative staining has the opposite effect, to highlight everything but the entity of interest, thus making the entity of interest identifiable. Staining can also be categorized as "simple" or "differential" where simple staining uses one type of stain at a time while differential staining uses multiple stains where different entity types appear in different colors. The method of staining will also be influenced by the type of microscopy used (optical, electron) as well as the frequency and wavelength of light.

Also see: Staining Products:
Cells stained - Creative Commons

Stem cells:

Stem cells - Creative Commons


Antibodies - Creative Commons

Lab Terms and Acronyms:

Term or AcronymDescription
ELISAEnzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay: analytical measurement method that uses antibodies to detect the presence of peptides, proteins, antigens or hormones
EIAEnzyme Immunoassay: used to detect antigens or antibodies by producing an enzyme triggered color change. Often used interchangably with the acronym ELISA
assayAn assay is a lab procedure to measure the presece or amount of an entity (drug, biochemical substance, cell, ...)
antigenAn antigen is a molecule, present on the outside of a pathogen, that can be bound by an antigen-specific antibody. Antigens typically trigger an immune response
antibodyAn antibody is a Y shaped protein used to identify and neutralize pathogens (bacteria and viruses). The antibody recognizes the antigen which identifies the pathogen
substrateThe chemical being observed in a chemical reaction
reagentThe substance added to a system to cause a chemical reaction
ESCembryonic stem cells
PBSphosphate buffered saline
TgTransgenic: lab animals with some of their DNA substituted with human DNA to better model drug efficacy for human consumption
immunofluorescenceis an assay which is used primarily on biological samples and used to detect antigens using specific antibodies
immunoblotting(western blotting) is an assay using antigen-antibody interaction for the detection and characterization of specific proteins