Providing resources and ideas for cures for Parkinson's disease:
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug trials are categorized as "Phase 1", "Phase 2" and "Phase 3" trials:
In Europe the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has four phases:
Drugs which can show efficacy and safety for the patient, may be approved at the end of the process.
Note that drugs in trials do not have catchy brand names.The approach taken by the various drug companies differs and their efficacy may depend on the patient's root cause of the disease:
Prophelactic vacine against mis-folded alpha-synuclein aggregation.
These drugs are targeting the mal-folded protein which kill neurons and is considered to be the fundamental cause of the disease.
The goal of these drugs is to inhibit the progression and development of Parkinson's by restoring neurons and by inducing growth of new neurons by using neurotrophic factors.
Also see the association of exercise and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factors (BDNF) to neuron health.
Drugs in this category are targeted at various inflammation pathways. Inflammation is usually a by-product of immune system activation and is meant to have a duration long enough to process a pathogen or heal tissue. When the inflammation becomes chronic it usually has harmful side-effects including cell death, specifically dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in the case of Parkinson's disease.
For more on NLRP3 see:
These drugs are targeting patients with the gene LRRK2, identified as having a genetic link to Parkinson's.
These drugs are targeting patients with the GBA gene mutation, identified as having a genetic link to Parkinson's.
Gene Therapy attempts to treat Parkinson's by modifying DNA to correct genetic errors.
Drugs trying to improve on Levodopa and its variants by improving the side effects.